Storage for a long time allows the paint to sink to the bottom of the can because of its weight and shape.
1. Storage room temperature too low or temperature difference too high.
2. The shelf life of the paint has expired.
3. It was stored with less paint left.
1. The ideal storage temperature is 15°C.
2. Replenish stock regularly.
3. Always place the new product behind the shelf.
4. Do not store with less paint left.
|Solution||If the shelf life is not exceeded, the temperature does not affect the paint product, so mix it well and use it.|
Craters are circular dents with raised edges in the topcoat or the intermediate coats.
1. Oil, fat, wax and silicone polish residue were not thoroughly removed from the surface to be coated.
2. Contamination from the air, e.g. spray mist from another type of paint.
3. Oils or water from the compressed air.
4. Silicones from the aerosol cans (Water repellents).
5. Foreign substances from industrial plants near by
|Prevent||Only a very thorough cleaning of the areas to be coated can prevent craters from forming. If products which contain silicone (polish, sealing compounds) are used this should be carried out in a separate area, totally away from the spray area.|
|Repair||If craters have formed sand away this layer of paint thoroughly clean and apply a new paint layer.|
Atomized and dried paint particles that have settled on the surface during painting and not completely absorbed into the surface.
|Cause||Insufficient overspray absorption due to wrong hardener and/or thinner as regards environmental conditions.|
1. Mask carefully the panels that are not to be painted.2. Consult the technical data sheet for suitable thinners or hardeners.
2. Consult the technical data sheet for suitable thinners or hardeners.
|Repair||Sanding and re-application in respect to correct conditions.|
Paint film having an uneven texture that resembles the skin of an orange.
1. Under reduction and/or air pressure too low.
2. Thinner/reducer evaporates too fast for spray conditions.
3. Excessive film thickness or piling on of heavy wet coats.
4. Improper spray gun set-up.
5. Improper painting technique.
1. Use proper reduction ratio and spray at recommended air pressure.
2. Select recommended thinner/reducer based on temperature, humidity, air movement, and size of repair.
3. Avoid heavy coats and excessive film thickness.
4. Use recommended spray gun, fluid tip and air cap for the material being sprayed. Always adjust the gun for best atomization and balanced spray pattern before paint application.
5. During paint application, hold the gun perpendicular and parallel to the surface. Adjust speed of pass, pattern overlap, and distance from the panel to achieve the desired appearance.
1. Compound or polish to reduce surface texture.
2. Or, sand smooth with 1200 or finer grit sandpaper, compound and polish to restore gloss.
3. Or, sand smooth and refinish.
Coatings that fall to adhere uniformly, causing beads, droplets, or slippage of the total film.
1. Over reduction and/or too slow evaporating thinner/reducer.
2. Applying paint materials without proper flash time between coats.
3. Applying excessive wet coats due to:
(1) Holding the gun too close to the surface;
(2) Slow gun speed;
(3) Double coating.
4. Air pressure too low during spray application.
5. Improper spray gun set-up or an unbalanced spray pattern.
6. Material and/or substrate temperature too cold.
1. Mix according to product directions. Select recommended solvent for spray conditions based on temperature, humidity, air movement, size of repair.
2. Spray medium wet coats and allow sufficient flash time between coats.
3. Adjust the spray gun for the best atomization and balanced spray pattern before paint application. Hold the spray gun perpendicular and parallel to the panel. Adjust speed of pass, pattern overlap, and distance from the panel until the desired results are achieved.
4. Set air pressure at the gun according to product recommendations.
5. Use recommended spray gun, including fluid tip and air cap combination.
6. Allow the paint material and substrate to reach room temperature before application
1. Remove the wet paint film with solvent, clean and refinish.
2. Or, after finish is completely dry. remove excess paint by block sanding with 1200 or finer grit sandpaper, compound and polish to restore gloss.
3. Or, block sand smooth and refinish.
The surface of the paint contains irregular grooves or ridges resembling the skin of a prune.
1. Excessive film thickness or "piling on" of heavy wet coats.
2. Placing a newly painted finish in hot sun too soon after spraying.
3. Using lacquer thinner to reduce synthetic enamel.
4. Spraying in extreme hot, humid weather conditions.
5. Under reduced and/or too fast evaporating thinner/reducer for spray conditions.
6. Air pressure too low during spray application.
7. Force drying of air-dry enamels without the recommended additives.
|Prevent||1. Avoid excessive film thickness and heavy coats. Always allow for sufficient flash times. 2. Keep newly painted finish away from direct sunlight until finish has dried/cured. 3. Use reducer that is specifically recommended for the topcoat. 4. Use the recommended reducer, additive, and/or retarder when spraying in hot humid weather. 5. Select recommend thinner/reducer based on temperature, humidity, air movement, and size of repair. 6. Use the proper reduction ratio and spray at recommended air pressure. 7. Select the recommended additives to suit drying conditions. Follow force dry temperatures and time recommendations.|
|Repair||1. If defects are minor; Sand the top surface smooth, allow to cure and refinish. 2. If defects are severe; Remove the affected area and refinish.|
A streaked spotty, or striped appearance in a metallic color.
1. An uneven distribution of metallic flake caused by:
(1) Using a spray gun that gives an unbalanced spray pattern;
(2) Improper application technique such as tilting the spray gun during application, causing the spray pattern to become heavy at the top or bottom.
(3) Holding the gun too close to the surface (flooding);
(4) Uneven spray pattern overlap;
(5) Omitting/Improper use of mist coats.
2. Too much thinner/reducer. Color over thinned/reduced.
3. Applying clearcoat to a basecoat that has not thoroughly flashed/dried.
4. Improper application of basecoat (e.g. failure to apply or an improper use of a low pressure mist coat, wet basecoat application).
1. Use recommended spray gun, including fluid tip and air cap for the material being sprayed. Always adjust the gun for best atomization and balanced spray pattern before paint application.
2. Use the correct ratio of thinner/reducer.
3. Allow basecoat proper flash/dry time before clearcoating.
4. Follow basecoat application procedures.
1. To uniform single stage metallic finishes, apply a higher pressure mist coat, panel by panel, while previous coat is still wet.
2. Or, allow basecoat color to flash, then apply a low pressure mist coat.
3. Finishes that have dried must be sanded and refinished. Caution: Large areas of basecoat must have clearcoat applied before sanding. However, small nibs or lint may be removed from basecoat by wet sanding, concentrating only on the defect. Apply additional basecoat to the sanded area before clearcoating.
A Red or Yellow discoloration in the topcoat color.
|Cause||Solvent in the new topcoat dissolves soluble dyes or pigments in the original finish, allowing them to seep into and discolor the new topcoat.|
|Prevent||Isolate suspected bleeding finish by applying a two component surfacer and/or sealer. Allow to cure following product recommendations, then apply desired topcoat.|
|Repair||1. Allow color to cure, isolate with two component undercoat(s) and refinish. 2. Or, remove original paint film and refinish.|
The existing paint film shrivels, wrinkles or swells during new finish application or drying.
Solvents in a newly applied product attack the previous finish causing wrinkling, raising, or puckering of the paint film due to:
(1) Recoating enamels or urethanes that are not fully cured;
(2) Exceeding maximum flash or recoat times during application;
(3) Recoating a basecoat/clearcoat finish, where existing clearcoat has insufficient film build.
Check questionable finishes by rubbing a small inconspicuous area with a shop towel saturated with lacquer thinner. Finishes susceptible to lifting will soften, swell or shrivel as lacquer thinner is applied. If any of these reactions occur, the following recommendations should be considered.
(A)Do not exceed a product's maximum recoat time during or after application.
(B) Allow enamels or urethanes to thoroughly cure before recoating or attempting a repair.
(C) Avoid applying undercoats or topcoats excessively wet.
(D) Avoid the use of lacquer products over an air dried enamel finish.
(E) When insoluble material (enamel/urethane) has been applied over a soluble material (lacquer):
(1) avoid sanding through and exposing areas of the soluble material.
(2) apply two component primer surfacer and/or sealer as a barrier between the new and the old finish. When applying two component undercoats over soluble finishes, the complete panel must be coated.
(F) Use water borne undercoats to repair extremely sensitive finishes.
|Repair||Remove lifted areas and refinish.|
Small holes or bubbles located in or on top of putties or body fillers.
Air or gas bubbles become trapped inside putty or filler during mixing or product
application. These bubbles are exposed during the sanding process, creating small holes or
craters in the surface. Air or gas is trapped when:
(1) Filler and hardener are mixed together using a "whipping" motion (fast circular motion);
(2) Adding too much hardener;
(3) Applying heavy thick coats produces excessive heat, causing gas bubbles to form inside the product as it cures.
1. Mix putty/filler components by folding together and pressing down to eliminate air pockets.
2. Apply putty/filler in thin coats. Do not exceed manufacturer's recommended total film thickness.
3. Follow manufacturer's recommendation of correct ratio of putty/filler to hardener
|Repair||Apply a thin layer of polyester glazing putty (properly catalyzed and mixed), sand smooth and continue the repair process.|
Dark and/or streaked marks that resemble sand scratches in the paint film.
Scratching or distorting metallic/mica flakes close to the surface of the paint film due to:
(1) Sanding single stage or basecoat metallic finishes prior to clearcoating.
(2) Sanding single stage metallic finishes prior to buffing.
1. Avoid sanding basecoat finishes before clearcoating. If sanding is necessary apply
additional color following label direction.
2. When sanding single stage finishes confine the sanding to minor imperfections (nib sanding rather than entire panels). For best results use 1200 or finer grit sandpaper
|Repair||Allow finish to dry, sand and refinish.|
Small bubbles, pinholes or crater-like openings in or on the paint film
Liquid solvent (thinners/reducers) becomes "trapped" in the paint film when the surface
layer skins over too quickly, preventing their evaporation into the atmosphere. Solvents that
vaporize within the paint film leave bubbles, pinholes or craters as they push through and
"pop" the surface. Solvents can be trapped due to:
(1) Thinner/reducer evaporating too fast for spraying conditions;
(2) Inadequate flash time between coats;
(3) Excessive film thickness or "piling on" of heavy/wet coats;
(4) Too much air movement causing surface to "skin over" before solvents evaporate;
(5) Excessive purge/flash time before force drying.
1. Select recommended thinner/reducer based on temperature, humidity, air movement and
size of repair;
2. Allow for proper flash time between coats.
3. Avoid "piling on" or double wet coats.
4. Restrict air movement over the surface being painted.
5. Avoid extended purge/flash time before force drying.
NOTE: Fine dust particles that fall on a tacky surface can be encapsulated by the wet film, creating an appearance almost identical to solvent pop. This "solvent pop" appearance usually occurs on vehicles that are removed from the booth in a somewhat tacky condition and placed in another location to dry. Fine dust contamination can be removed by sanding and polishing. However, If the condition is solvent pop, the finish will contain pinholes or small craters after being sanded.
1. Allow finish to thoroughly dry/cure, sand smooth and refinish. Inspect surface
carefully to ensure all craters have been removed.
2. Severe popping will require removal of the affected film. Prime, seal and recoat, as necessary.
A milky gray cloud appears on the surface of the paint film immediately or shortly after application.
|Cause||When spraying during humid conditions, air from the spray gun and solvent evaporation lowers the substrate temperature below the dew point, causing moisture in the air to condense in or on the paint film. The condition is aggravated when too fast drying or unbalanced thinner/reducer is used.|
1. Always use good quality solvent and thin/reduce material according to label directions.
2. Select proper thinner/reducer for spray condition.
3. Add the recommended amount of retarder when spraying in humid conditions.
4. Apply heat after application to evaporate moisture.
1. Should blushing occur during application:
(a) apply heat to the affected area, or
(b) add retarder and apply additional coats.
2. If the finish has dried, minor blushing may be corrected by compounding or polishing, how ever, severe blushing will require sanding and refinishing.
Swelled areas appearing as pimples or bubbles in the topcoat film, often months after application.
(A) Moisture trapped beneath the paint film due to:
1) Improper dry time after wet sanding;
2) Contaminated air lines;
3) Spraying in extreme high humidity conditions.
(B) Using a poor grade and/or too fast evaporating thinner/reducer for spray conditions.
(C) Trapped solvents from applying wet heavy coats with insufficient flash time between coats.
(D) Improper dry time of undercoats before topcoating.
(E) Painting over grease, oil or rust.
(A) If wet sanding is preferred, allow sufficient time for moisture to evaporate. Avoid wet
sanding lacquer type primer surfacer when possible. Drain moisture from compressor and
air lines regularly. Allow additional flash time between coats and/or add retarder when
spraying in humid conditions, or spray at times of low humidity when possible.
(B) Select proper thinner/reducer for spray conditions.
(C) Apply materials according to product recommendations, allowing sufficient flash time between coats.
(D) Allow undercoats to thoroughly dry/cure before topcoating.
(E) Clean and prep substrate using recommended products and procedures.
(1) Remove affected area and refinish.
(2) Extreme cases must be stripped to bare substrate before refinishing.
Circles with raised edges or whitish spots resembling the various shapes of water droplets appear on the surface of the paint film.
(A) Allowing water to come into contact with a finish that is not thoroughly dried/cured.
(B) Washing finish in direct sunlight.
(A) Do not allow water to come into contact with newly painted finish.
(B) If a new finish does get wet, dry immediately with a soft cloth.
(C) Wash new finishes in the shade and wipe dry.
(1) Wipe with a damp cloth, then polish.
(2) Or, compound and polish.
(3) Or, sand smooth with 1500-2000 grit sandpaper, compound and polish to restore gloss.
(4) Or, sand and refinish.
A chalky white appearance on the surface of the paint film
Pigment is no longer held and protected by resin, resulting in a powder-like surface and lack
of gloss due to:
(1) Natural weathering of the paint film;
(2) Improper application of paint material;
(3) Using generic thinner/reducer and/or hardener in the paint material;
(4) Excessive use of mist/fog coats when applying single stage metallic finishes
(A) Weekly washing and occasional polishing or waxing will remove oxidation from the finish.
(B) Thoroughly stir, shake or agitate all paint materials.
(C) Use the recommended thinner/reducer,hardener, and measure accurately.
(D) When spraying single stage metallic finishes, apply mist/fog coats panel by panel while finish is still wet.
(1) Compound to remove oxidation and polish to restore gloss.
(2) Or, sand to remove "weathered" paint film and refinish.
A chalky white appearance on the surface of the paint film.
(A) Excessive film thickness of the undercoat and/or topcoat.
(B) Refinishing over a previously crazed/cracked surface.
(C) Insufficient flash time between coats and/or force drying undercoats using air from the spray gun.
(D) Mixing incorrectly or using too much hardener.
(E) Paint ingredients not thoroughly stirred or agitated.
(F) Breakdown of finish due to prolonged exposure to sunlight, moisture, and extreme temperature changes.
(G) Using generic reducers and/or hardeners.
(A) Apply all materials following label direction.
(B) Completely remove crazed/cracked finishes before refinishing.
(C) Do not force dry undercoats by fanning with spray gun air.
(D) Mix ingredients thoroughly using the recommended additives. Add each component in proper sequence following the recommended mixing ratio.
(E) Stir or agitate materials thoroughly before use to ensure all ingredients are in solution.
(F) Use premium two component undercoat and topcoat system to provide maximum gloss and durability.
(G) Use the recommended thinner/reducer and hardener, and then measure accurately.
|Repair||Remove all cracked paint film and refinish.|
A dulling of the gloss as the film dries or ages.
(A) Topcoat applied in heavy, wet coats.
(B) Inadequate flash time between coats.
(C) Insufficient film thickness of topcoat color or clearcoat.
(D) Insufficient drying/curling of undercoats before applying topcoats.
(E) Using a poor grade and/or too fast evaporating thinner/reducer for spray conditions.
(F) Improper cleaning of the substrate.
(G) Insufficient air movement during and after application.
(H) Spraying over a deteriorated or solvent sensitive substrate finish without proper priming or sealing procedures.
(I) Natural weathering of the finish.
(A) Apply the topcoat according to product label directions using the recommended gun set-up
and air pressure.
(B) Allow all coatings sufficient flash between coats.
(C) Apply sufficient number of coats to achieve recommended proper film thickness.
Check with film thickness gauge if possible.
(D) Allow undercoats to thoroughly dry/cure before topcoating.
(E) Select recommended thinner/reducer based on temperature, humidity, air movement, and size of repair.
(F) Clean substrate thoroughly before and after sanding.
(G) For air dry situations: (1) allow exhaust fan to run 40 minutes or longer after spraying;
(H) open booth doors after finish is dust free; and (3) maintain a shop temperature of 60 degrees fahrenheit or above, especially when drying overnight.
(U) For maximum holdout, use a premium two component undercoat system.
(J) Properly wash and care for the finish on a regular basis.
(K) Using premium topcoat color or clearcoat system will provide maximum gloss and durability.
(1) Allow finish to cure thoroughly, compound or polish to restore gloss.
(2) Or, sand and refinish.
Small areas of damage to the paint film leaving a nick, notch or void in the finish.
|Cause||Loss of adhesion of the paint film to the substrate caused by an impact from stones or other hard objects|
(A) Use premium two component undercoat and topcoat system.
(B) Use a flex agent in undercoat and/or topcoat system in areas that are prone to chipping.
|Repair||Sand and featheredge damaged areas to remove chips, then refinish.|